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Windows Administrator L1 Interview Question

1. What is the different between Workgroup and Domain? Domain Server has Centralized Control   Where else Workgroup has no Centralized Control

  • Domain Network has higher level of security when compared to Workgroup.

  • Domain Network Implementation and Maintained cost is very less when compared to that of workgroup.

  • Time constrain is very less when compared to that of a Workgroup.

  • Administrator has overall control on the network where else workgroup has no control.

2. How will assign Local Administrator rights for domain user?

Navigate to Local User and Groups add the domain users to administrators group in the local system.

3. How will you restrict user logon timing in domain?

Navigate to Active Directory Users and Computers, User Properties select logon times and restrict the user logon timing as needed.

4. What is the purpose of sysvol?

The sysvol folder stores the server’s copy of the domain’s public files. The contents such as group policy, users, and groups of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. The sysvol folder must be located on an NTFS volume.

5. What is OU? Explain its Uses.

Organization Unit is set of active directory object within a domain. It is used to design an organization structure, Restrict user’s visibility and to delegate control.

6. Explain different edition of windows 2003 Server?

  • Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition: – is aimed towards small to medium sized businesses. Standard Edition supports file and printer sharing, offers secure Internet connectivity, and allows centralized desktop application deployment.
  • Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition: – is aimed towards medium to large businesses. It is a full-function server operating system that supports up to eight processors and provides enterprise-class features and support for up to 32 GB of memory.
  • Windows Server 2003, Web Edition: – is mainly for building and hosting Web applications, Web pages, and XML Web Services.
  • Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition: – is the flagship of the Windows Server line and designed for immense infrastructures demanding high security and reliability.

7. What is DNS Server?

Domain Name System is used to resolve domain name to IP Address and also used to resolve IP Address to Domain Name. It has two zones Forward and Reverse Lookup Zone. Forward Lookup Zone resolve Domain name to IP address. Reverse Lookup Zone is used to resolve IP address to Domain Name. Some records associate with DNS


  • A Record binds Name with IP Address

  • PTR Record binds IP Address to Name

8. Why DNS server is required for Active Directory?

The key reason for integrating DNS with AD is that client server communication takes place with Domain Name. Network needs IP address to reach the destination; In order to resolve Domain Name to IP Address we need DNS Server. If DNS Server is not configured properly the network becomes slow.

9. What is the Purpose of A and PTR Record?

  • A Record OR Host Record is used to bind a Name with IP Address.
  • PTR Record is used to bind an IP Address with Name.

10. What is the purpose of DHCP Server?

DHCP Server is used to assign IP address automatically to all the clients’ computers. It is useful in large enterprise network, where we may not able track the IP address and also used to avoid IP conflict.

11. Explain about Scope in DHCP Server?

Scope is collective information of assigning IP address for clients. It contains information like IP Address Range, Exclusion Range, Lease Period, Reservation, Router IP Address, DNS Address, etc. Based on the scope configuration DHCP allocates IP address to its entire client.

12. Explain about Group Scopes?

13. How will you backup DNS Server?

Backup the directory “%System Root%System32DNS”.

14. How will backup DHCP Server?

First Method: Backup the directory in the %System Root%System32DHCP folder.

Alternate method: Open DHCP Console select server to backup and restore DHCP database.

15. Explain APIPA.

A Windows-based computer that is configured to use DHCP can automatically assign itself an Internet Protocol (IP) address if a DHCP server is not available or does not exist. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved for Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA).

16. Explain about AD Database.

Windows 2003 Active Directory data store, the actual database file, is %System Root%NTDSNTDS.DIT. AD Database all information such as User Accounts, Groups, Computer Information, Domain Controller information, Group Policy, Organization Unit,etc.

17. Explain about Group Policy.

Group policies are used by administrators to configure and control user environment settings. Group Policy Objects (GPOs) are used to configure group policies which are applied to sites, domains, and organizational units (OUs) .There is a maximum of 1000 applicable group policies.

18. What is the default time for group policy refresh interval time?

The default refresh interval for policies is 90 minutes. The default refresh interval for domain controllers is 5 minutes. Group policy object’s group policy refresh intervals may be changed in the group policy object.

19. Explain Hidden Share.

Hidden or administrative shares are share names with a dollar sign ($) appended to their names. Administrative shares are usually created automatically for the root of each drive letter. They do not display in the network browse list.

20. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients?

Requests are on UDP port 68, Server replies on UDP 67.

21. How do I configure a client machine to use a specific IP Address?

By reserving an IP Address using client machine MAC or Physical address.

22. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones.

  • AD Integrated Zones allow Secure Dynamic Updates. I.e. there will not be any duplicate or unwanted records. Since all the information are validated in active directory.
  • By creating AD- integrated zone you can also trace hacker and spammer by creating reverse zone.
  • AD integrated zones are stored as part of the active directory and support domain-wide or forest-wide replication through application partitions in AD.

23. How do you backup & Restore AD?

Using Windows NTBackup Utility. In Backup select systemstate will include active directory backup. Restore the Same using NTBackup Utility.

24. How do you change the DS Restore admin password?

Using NTDSUTIL tool.

25. How can you forcibly remove AD from a server?

Using the command dcpromo /forceremoval

26. What will be the problem if DNS Server fails?

If your DNS server fails, No Client will able to reach the Domain Controller, which will create authentication and Control Issues.

27. How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine?

The Group Policy Object Editor and the Software Restriction Policies extension of Group Policy Object Editor are used to restrict running certain applications on a machine. For Windows XP computers that are not participating in a domain, you can use the Local Security Settings snap-in to access Software Restriction Policies.

28. What can you do to promote a server to DC?

Using the command dcpromo

29. How will map a folder through AD?

Specify the network share path (UNC) in the active directory users home directory.

30. Explain Quotas.

Disk Quota is a feature or service of NTFS which helps to restrict or manage the disk usage from the normal user. It can be implemented per user user per volume basis.By default it is disabled. Administrative privilege is required to perform the task. In 2003server we can control only drive but in 2008server we can establish quota in folder level.

31. Explain Backup Methodology.

The different types of backup methodologies are:


  • Normal Backup:-This is default backup in which all files are backed up even if it was backed up before.

  • Incremental Backup:-In this type of backup only the files that haven’t been backed up are taken care of or backed up.

  • Differential Backup:-This backup is similar to incremental backup because it does not take backup of those files backed up by normal backup but different from incremental because it will take backup of differentially backed up files at next time of differential backup.

  • System Backup:-This type of backup takes backup of files namely, Boot file, COM+Class Registry, Registry. But in server it takes backup of ADS.

  • ASR Backup:-This type of backup takes backup of entire boot partition including OS and user data. This should be the last troubleshooting method to recover an os from disaster.


32. Explain how to publish printer through AD.

Navigate to Active Directory Users and Computers, Create new printer and add the printer i.e. the printer share name (UNC) Path. Automatically the printer will be published in Active Directory.

33. Explain the functionality of FTP Server?

File Transfer Protocol is used transfer large volume of files and huge number of files simultaneous between different geographic locations.

34. Specify the Port Number for AD, DNS, DHCP, HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3 & FTP

  • AD – 389
  • DNS – 53
  • DHCP – 67,68
  • HTTP – 80
  • HTTPS – 443
  • SMTP – 25
  • POP3 – 110
  • FTP – 21,22

35. Explain Virtual Directory in IIS?

A virtual server can have one home directory and any number of other publishing directories. These other publishing directories are referred to as virtual directories.

36. What is Exclusion Range in DHCP Server?

Exclusion Range is used to hold a range IP addresses. Those IP Address can be used or may not be used in the network, but DHCP server does not assign those IP to its client.

37. Explain SOA Record.

Start Of Authority (SOA) Records indicate that Name Server is authoritative server for the domain.

38. What command is used to clear DNS cache in client PC?

Ipconfig /flushdns

39. Explain Secure Dynamic Updates in DNS Server.

Only when installing active directory and DNS in the same server (AD Integrated Zones) we can select Secure Dynamic Updates. Then all the records will automatically be updated in DNS. Since all the information is validated in active directory there will not be any duplicate or unwanted records.

40. Explain FRS in detail.

File Replication Service is a Microsoft service which replicates folders stored in sysvol shared folders on domain controllers and distributed file system shared folders. This service is a part of Microsoft’s active directory service.

41. Explain the protocol involved in ADC replication.

Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is the protocol used in ADC replication.

42. Explain the difference between Patches and Service pack.

Patches are fixes, updates or enhancements for a particular program whereas service packs include a collection of

43. What is WSUS?

WSUS is Windows Software Update Services. It is server provided by Microsoft free of cost to manage patches for windows environment centralized.

44. How client server communication takes place in WSUS server?

Using Web Server or Web Services

45. What is the difference between Dynamic Disk and Basic Disk?

Basic Disk: Basic Disk uses a partition table to manage all partitions on the disk, and it is supported by DOS and all Windows versions. A disk with installed OS would be default initialized to a basic one. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partition, and all logical partitions are contained in extended partition.

Dynamic Disk: Dynamic Disk is supported in Windows 2000 and later operating system. Dynamic disks do not use a partition table to track all partitions, but use a hidden database (LDM) to track information about dynamic volumes or dynamic partitions on the disk. With dynamic disks you can create volumes that span multiple disks such as spanned and striped volumes, and can also create fault-tolerant volumes such as mirrored volumes and RAID 5 volumes. Compared to a Basic Disk, Dynamic Disk offers greater flexibility.

46. What is maximum Size of file system NTFS and FAT32?


FAT32 – 4GB

47. What is “hosts” files?

The hosts file is a computer file used in an operating system to map hostnames to IP addresses. The hosts file is a plain-text file and is traditionally named hosts.

48. What is “lmhosts” files?

The lmhosts files are a computer file used in an operating system to map NetBIOS name. It is equivalent that of WINS.

49. Explain About Global Catalog.

global catalog contains a complete replica of all objects in Active Directory for its Host domain, and contains a partial replica of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest.

50. Name some OU design considerations.

It is used to design an organization structure, Restrict user’s visibility and to delegate control.

51. Name a few benefits of using GPMC.

  • GPMC is used to customize group policy.
  • It is easy to maintain different OU policy effectively.
  • Provide option to take backup and restore group policy.

52. You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper, My Documents, Start menu, printers etc.) on the computers in one department. How would you do that?

Configure Group Policy based on OU.

53. By default, if the name is not found in the cache or local hosts file, what is the first step the client takes to resolve the FQDN name into an IP address?

Create a record in DNS Server

54. You are administering a network connected to the Internet. Your users complain that everything is slow. Preliminary research of the problem indicates that it takes a considerable amount of time to resolve names of resources on the Internet. What is the most likely reason for this?

DNS Issues

55. Describe how the DHCP lease is obtained.

It’s a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request, (b) IP offer, (c) IP selection and (d) acknowledgement.

56. I can’t seem to access the Internet, don’t have any access to the corporate network and on ipconfig my address is 169.254.*.*. What happened?

The 169.254.*.* netmask is assigned to Windows machines running 98/2000/XP if the DHCP server is not available. The name for the technology is APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing).

57. We’ve installed a new Windows-based DHCP server, however, the users do not seem to be getting DHCP leases off of it.

The server must be authorized first with the Active Directory.

58. How do you configure mandatory profiles?

Rename ntuser.dat to

59. What is Page File and Virtual Memory?

Page File Is Storage Space For The Virtual Memory, Page File Uses Hard Disk Space As a Memory To Provide Memory Allocation…

60. What is the difference between DNS in Windows 2000 & Windows 2003 Server?

We can rename or moved the domain name without rebuilding in windows 2003 server, but in windows 2000 server, we can’t do that.

61. Where are group policies stored?

%SystemRoot%System32Group Policy

62. What are GPT and GPC?

Group policy template and group policy container.

63. Where is GPT stored?

%System Root%SYSVOLsysvoldomain namePoliciesGUID

64. You change the group policies, and now the computer and user settings are in conflict. Which one has the highest priority?

The computer settings take priority.

65. What hidden shares exist on Windows Server 2003 installation?

Admin$, Drive$, IPC$, NETLOGON, print$ and SYSVOL.


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